Our clinic has various services designed to help animals heal as quickly as possible and keep them healthy into the future. Whether your pet has a dental issue or is suffering from overweight, we’ve got lots of treatment options available. We believe the key to your pet's long-term health is prevention. Make sure to bring your pet over to get their annual wellness blood profile as well as other important physical examinations we provide. Contact us to schedule an appointment today.
Testing for Cushing's Disease
Free Testing for Cushing’s Disease (PPID) Available Sept 1 – Oct 31, 2020
Boehringer-Ingelheim, the manufacturer of Prascend, an oral treatment for PPID (Pars Pituitary Intermedia Dysfunction), is once again offering free blood testing for suspect horses. The following newsletter is dedicated to this metabolic disease. If your horse is showing some of the risk factors below, please contact one of our equine veterinarians to discuss enrollment into the free testing program.
Cushing’s Disease (Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction - PPID)
Introduction to PPID Cushing’s disease occurs when a horse’s body makes too much cortisol. The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, a prominent, human, American, neurosurgeon, whom first described the condition in his human patients in 1912.
Cortisol is a natural steroid hormone made by the adrenal glands, which are two small glands located near each kidney (image). Cortisol has several functions vital for life, including:
Regulating blood pressure (increases blood pressure through vasoconstriction)
Regulating the immune system (decreases the inflammatory response)
Balances the effect of insulin to keep blood sugar normal (increases blood sugar)
In horses, Cushing’s disease occurs most commonly in older horses (over 7) and especially ponies.
Clinical Signs of PPID
The most common clinical sign in horses is hirsutism (abnormally long hair coat, or failure to shed their winter hair coat). This sign occurs in 60-80% of horses. In the early stages of diseases, hair coat abnormalities tend to be subtle and regional. Your horse may shed his winter coat everywhere except in small patches—usually around the jawline and base of the neck, and along the back of the front and hind legs. The summer coat may grow longer and lighter in colour in these areas.
In more advanced cases, hair coat abnormalities are more noticeable and generalized; your horse does not shed out his winter coat until well into spring or summer, or in some cases, not at all. The hair may also appear abnormal—lighter in colour, longer, and/or curly.
The second most common clinic sign is laminitis, inflammation of the sensitive laminae within the foot. Up to 50% of horses, in both early and advanced stages of disease, can be affected.
Other common clinical signs include:
-Polyuria/Polydipsia (urinating and drinking more frequently), weight loss despite eating well, lethargy (slow and calm), secondary infections of skin, respiratory tract, teeth and gums, excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) or failure to sweat (anhidrosis), redistribution of fat deposits (ie. Patchy fat deposits on neck and around tail head), a pendulous abdomen (pot belly), sway back, and loss of muscle mass, Infertility – abnormal or absent reproductive cycles, development of allergies and hypersensitivities (ie.vaccinations, flies), neurologic signs, such as seizures or narcolepsy (sleepy), blindness in advanced cases.
The Pathophysiology of Cushing’s Disease/PPID
In brief, the pathophysiology of this disease is quite complex. For a more thorough explanation, please visit our website, mwvets.com and follow the Services menu bar to Equine. Essentially, a benign adenoma (tumor) develops in the pituitary gland, which causes overproduction of some hormones, most importantly ACTH.
Diagnosis of Cushing’s Disease
Our veterinary clinic usually starts with a simple blood test, called Endogenous ACTH. A blood sample is sent to the University of Guelph. The cost of the test is approximately $100, plus shipping. If the ACTH level is normal and does not support a diagnosis of Cushing’s disease, your veterinarian may consider other endocrine disorders, such as Equine Metabolic Syndrome, Hypothyroidism, Hyperadrenocorticism, or simply obesity and laminitis.
Treatment of Cushing’s Disease
A drug named Prascend (pergolide mesylate) has been registered in Canada and is the drug of choice. It is a tablet, which is given orally to the horse daily, and is relatively affordable. Pergolide is a dopamine receptor agonist which was originally approved in 1982 for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease in humans.
In addition to treatment with Prascend, the following measures should be taken to ensure your horse remains healthy and the drug continues to be effective:
(1) A nutritional plan is of utmost importance.
The most appropriate diet to feed a horse is grass or grass hay on a free choice basis, so long as this forage is not too rich in sugars. Test your hay. The vet clinic or your nutritionist can test your hay for you. They should ask for the wet chemistry test, including sugars and minerals. That way you can custom mineral balance your hay ration to ensure your horse is properly fed.A slow feeder net should be used to slow down consumption.Grain is not necessary for most horses, unless in serious training/work, and many commercial feeds have high amounts of sugars that should be avoided. If your hay analysis is high in sugar, it may be necessary to soak your hay for 30 minutes prior to feeding. This will help leach out some of the excess sugar.A grazing muzzle may be necessary in order to restrict or slow down the amount of sugar-rich grass your horse may be exposed to.To maintain weight, a horse or pony should consume 2% of its body weight in hay per day. That’s 20 lbs of hay for a 1000 lb horse, or approximately ½ - 2/3 of a small square bale. To lose weight, you can safely reduce this to 1.5% of body weight.
(2) Body clipping, especially in the hot months to help manage uneven hair growth.
(3) Consistent monitoring for signs of infection, lameness, dental and eye issues.
(4) Avoid stressful situations, which can further increase cortisol levels.
(5) Monitor your horse’s body condition using the Henneke scale. An ideal weight is a score of 5-6.
The equine veterinarians at our clinic want to ensure your horse remains in peak physical condition throughout the year. We can help you implement a wellness program suited to your horse’s needs.
OUR EQUINE SERVICES INCLUDE:
Computerized Medical & Lab Records
Radiography – Digital & Portable
Ultrasonography – Digital & Portable
DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY AND ULTRASONOGRAPHY
Superior quality images;
Increased diagnostic capability;
Computerized image storage, retrieval, and sharing;
Digital radiography is used to produce images of bony structures. The digital images can be viewed at the stable, allowing for quick, on-site assessment of problems. The ability to manipulate the images on the computer and enhance specific regions of the image allows for better visualization of the problem areas. Images can be burned to a CD, or emailed to a client or another veterinarian, as we often do for pre-purchase examinations.
Digital ultrasound further complements our lameness diagnostic capabilities, providing our veterinarians with detailed images of soft tissue structures, such as tendons and ligaments. Ultrasound may also be used to visualize some internal organs in the chest and abdomen.
HOW EQUINE CHIROPRACTIC WORKS:
The bones of the spine and joints are maintained in a specific alignment. The nerves which surround each joint and vertebral articulation are in constant communication with the central nervous system, brain, and all organs. When even a subtle change in the alignment occurs, it is called a subluxation. Subluxations affect the nervous system, local muscles, joints and even distant organs, glands, and body functions.
HOW CAN YOU ADJUST A HORSE?
With equine chiropractic care the practitioner is not adjusting a horse, but rather the relative position of two bones at a joint articulation.
WILL AN ADJUSTMENT HURT?
Most horses accept both the exam and adjustment without signs of pain.
WHAT TO EXPECT AFTER AN ADJUSTMENT:
After a 24-hour rest, many horses will show improvement. Sometimes there is a 24-48 hour period of tiredness. Some horses require a few sessions to resolve acute pain.
INDICATIONS FOR CHIROPRACTIC CARE
Athletic competitions – getting the competitive edge;
Surgery involving anesthesia;
Recovery from injury;
Behavior or mood change when ridden;
Tendency to be head shy, cinchy, reluctant to pick up a lead or go in one direction, pulling one way or hair color or pattern change along the body